These viruses actually make the world better
10. You’re blue
If you ever wanted to find a green egg for some doctors. Green eggs and ham in the Upper style, good luck. They don’t even need eggs for exotic wild birds because of the virus.
Mostly white or brown eggs, but some hens lay green or blue eggs. These classes include Chilean Indian variety, its Aruchna pedigree variety and Chinese variety Dongjiang and Lucia.
Two things are responsible for colored eggs: a viral infection and blood. It has long been chickenpox infected with a retrovirus, a virus that can insert their genetic code of the host. the retroviral effect was bilvirynu formations in the scrotum, the disintegration of hemoglobin product that can give green bruises.
The Dongxiang and Lushi varieties develop colorful eggs on their own, but with the same viral cause. According to historical data, the breed was the Dongjiang Brush-green Mapuche bird egg mutations and at least 500 years ago, 200 to 500 years ago. The symptom is an autosomal dominant so that the hens lay eggs for the chickens of a single father. Those who have two copies of the gene version lay a darker egg.
9. Tulips virus destroying
For the beauty of the virus-infected eggs, only one has to pay a little more than usual. But for a beautiful tulip in the Netherlands since the 17th century, people had to pay much more.
While some tulips had mysterious beautiful stripes and feathers. They are called “broken” tulips. They were so expensive that they could leave their “broken” owners, as well as the entire Dutch economy.
In 1623, some bulbs were sold in 1000 florins, if the average annual income was 150 florins. Because of the high prices some citizens cheaper to get a life of “broken” tulips, tulips than.
Their beauty was ephemeral, while the light bulb broke the contracted tulips for future generations. Eventually, he was unable to prosper and died quickly. Nobody knew the cause of the tulip failure. People treat all kinds of wonderful things, such as pigeon manure to reproduce the image.
Later, it was found that a virus called the Gorscov virus broke the tulip. The infection spreads through ingestion or infested aphids. The virus has acted, which affects the distribution of anthocyanin pigment.
Today, these tulips are still expensive, but to the detriment, viruses can make gardens, and not their beauty. The tulips infected with the virus were once such titles are now carefully curved gardens. There is now a specially developed imitation tulip drawing “broken” tulips without a virus.
8. virus generators
Computer viruses are named after their biological counterparts. Now biological viruses lead back to electronics.
Some form a solid electrical charge when compressed. This is called the piezoelectric effect and best known in quartz watches. Piezoelectric effects have various uses, but the material used for the manufacture of piezoelectric devices, toxic and difficult to operate. This limits the widespread use of the piezoelectric effect.
Scientists at Berkliskay laboratories can replace it with a virus. They used a phage M13 virus, which is bacterial and harmless to humans. This is useful for several reasons: naturally multiplying it by millions of themselves arranging in ordered movies, similar to box chops, and genetically easy to manage. Genetic engineering helps scientists to increase stress easily, and self-regulation helps for self-assembly nanotechnology.
Scientists at Berkeley Lab tested their approach by creating a generator. The generator works by pressing a finger on the electrode, which is the size of a stamp, which is covered with a virus. The virus then converts the crane into electricity and to produce enough energy to work with the LCD screen.
With this technology, future devices can be loaded with vibration everyday tasks, such as climbing stairs or closing doors.
7. virus battery
Some owners of computers and smartphones are concerned about viruses that can speed up the battery of their device and leave them metal stones useless. But biological viruses can do the opposite: to improve battery life.
In 2006, scientists at the University of Massachusetts (MIT) used a virus called M13, which was part of the battery. This part of the anode is part of a pair of poles in a battery with opposite electrical charges. In 2009, scientists completed a quick task to make the anode-cathode equivalent.
To do this, scientists had to change two of the virus gene. The first gene produces a protein in the viral envelope. A co-authored study by Angela M. According to Belcher, the change left pieces of iron phosphate and appeared “like small fists along the entire length of the virus.” The second gene retracts carbon nanotubes and forms a network of millions of viruses electrical conductors.
High temperatures (350 ° C), approximately 660 ° F were required to create comparable technologies. However, researchers can transform the M13 into a battery manufacturing device at room temperature or below.
According to Belcher, the virus can charge the battery a third (10 grams) iPod battery for 40 hours. However, she believes it is better for big, powerful things, such as electric cars.
This year, progress has been made. Viruses can significantly improve vehicles with electric lithium-air batteries. The M13 virus was used to make manganese oxide nanapravadnikov for a lithium-air battery. Unlike conventional metal nanapravadnikovs, threads formed by viruses have also sharpened the thickened surface, greatly increasing the surface of the filaments. Increased surface area can be a major advantage of the battery charging rate. This process also has other advantages, such as increased electrode stability and less need for expensive metals, such as palladium for batteries.
6. Viruses to fight the Virus
Herpes and cancer, two diseases that people do not want to talk about. But the use of sparks in the fight against cancer is worth discussing.
Imlygic – a new cancer drug. On average, the life expectancy of patients with melanoma less than four and a half months is prolonged. This is hardly a statistical significance, but Imlikic Features: It is created by the virus. Rather, it is alive, infectious version, modified by HSV-1 species of the herpes virus, which is a common cause of herpes.
Although Imlygic is not effective in itself, side effects, such as the flu, are mild compared to chemotherapy. When the cells become cancerous, their car to fight viruses is destroyed. The herpes virus mainly attacks cancer cells. If it attacks him, debris from the broken cells impairs the immune system and then the immune system targets the cancer cells. However, it is unclear whether the immune system targets all cancer cells in the body or only those infected with the virus.
While the first was in the United States permission from Emilagik cancer treatment, it is not only in development. A virus that destroys the tumor is a popular topic among scientists, and the idea has been around for decades. In the future, Imlygic additional cancer therapies may be included.
5. The Orange vaccine virus
Tradition colds (which are caused by viruses) are traditionally treated with orange juice. But through the use of viruses, oranges can fight with insects, common bugs.
Citrus greens (or hung long to use the Chinese name) – a deadly disease for citrus trees. This bacterium c. Liberia is caused by bacteria, which are spread by insects that suck.
Before planting appeared citrus, the most destructive virus was an orange lemon citrus virus. (Or CTV), the virus was named after Trystezy, the Portuguese word that means “pain” for the misery caused by the arrival of the virus.
Now, these two main citrus pests will face each other juice, and orange has hung the United States on a balance.
Catalog plants Bill Dawson of the University of Florida changed the local strain or CTV. For this reason, you can insert a new or DNA strand into the genome of the virus and make a protein factory. Sud Garden Citrus, one of the largest orange juice producers in the world, received a license for the Dawson Laboratory’s viral vector. needle C virus in all southern gardens was needed to make an injection. The company chose the spinach gene, which is encoded on antibacterial proteins called protection.
Sud Garden intends to infect a harmless tree or CTV strain. Branches of trees infected with CTV will be planted on other trees to spread the virus. As soon as the virus copies itself, it becomes a factory for defenders to encourage and c. Destroy Liberibacter.
Since the tree’s biology is unchanged, the orange juice in these plants will not be genetically modified. It is much easier to obtain regulatory permission to bypass the issue of antitrust regulation, or genetically modified plants.
4. Protection of food poisoning
Scary refers to the toilet, wait for it to be thrown, and a silly question, what kind of things you eat. Intralytix, founded in 1998, plans to try drugs on microbes, so to speak: viruses are used for infections (bacteria) and food poisoning cause.
Each of the products contains a mixture of viruses that target these species of bacteria. Listshield ™, the company’s first product was approved in 2006. Its purpose is to cause bacteria that cause monocytogenes listeriosis, a type of food poisoning death. About 20%. ListShield ™ should be applied to ready-to-eat meat, for example, daily meat and hot dogs. To kill the listeria, ListShield ™ is sprayed on meat and sinks, floors and other surfaces of the food business.
The second Intralytix product – EcoShield ™ – designed for strain O157: H7 or E. coli. E. EcoShield ™ is sprayed onto the meat before being applied to the soil in burgers to destroy sticks. Studies conducted with state Sulakvelide investigators found that the product destroys the E.coli strain 95-100% for 5 minutes.
Both procedures are odorless, tasteless, invisible and non-aggressive. The phage concentration in the spray liquid is 0.001%, which makes the product, such as harmless as water, but targets bacteria.
Later, another company, Mikros BV, created its healing phase, Listen ™ (P100) and Salmonalex ™. Listen ™ (P100), focused on one type of listeria and Salmonalex ™ – salmonella.
3. Antibiotic viruses
Bacteriophages (or “phages”) are natural enemies of bacteria. They copy to bacteria, and the bacteria eventually opened with the virus.
In the 1920s and 1930s, doctors treated a variety of phage infection. However, the therapy phase had some problems. Scientists at the time did not know that phage must be properly connected with the target bacteria, which makes the phage treatment unsafe. Also, people are sometimes ill with treatment because they have not been properly cleansed.
After the Second World War on mass-produced antibiotics. They were more reliable than the phase, so the interest in the phase reduced. Although Faiz was largely forgotten in the United States, he was not forgotten in the Soviet Union. Because the iron curtain blocks access to some of the best antibiotics in the West, the Soviet coped with the phage therapy phase and made it more effective. Therapy Today the phase administered in various forms, such as tablets, liquids and injections, and remains the standard treatment in Poland, Russia, and Georgia.
Unlike antibiotics, phages are very precise and allow the body to “good” bacteria. With increasing antibiotic resistance, the phage can return to the English-speaking world.
2. Viruses that kill other viruses
Have you ever heard the expression “fight with fire”? Well, in this case, it works if you refer to the “fire” of HIV.
In 2011, scientists at the University of California-San Diego and UCLA created a harmless version of HIV, which depends on HIV prevalence. This virus has been called particle medical or prevents TIP. Collecting HIV replication, SFAT can be given to someone five or more years before ten AIDS becomes effective.
The SFAT genetic code was missing one-third of its original size and lacking critical parts that need to be copied. The council can only copy itself the secret genetic code skapiruyuchy with HIV, and if it is. TIP also contains the sequence ingibitarnyya HIV and competes for HIV-related proteins. Lane Weinberger, the leader of the team that created SFAT, compared to the “virus.”
According to Weinberger, TIP can help HIV super-readers. These people, such as drug users, are responsible for a disproportionate amount of HIV.
In 2016, re-arranged scientists match the virus to the virus, this time between reovirus and hepatitis C. As child reovirus can cause the common cold, but in adulthood, most prone to it, and immunity. It’s like the early enemy game: first, it’s difficult, but a piece of cake once someone gets stronger.
For comparison: Hepatitis C is similar to that of the last owner, some of which seem undefeated. Hepatitis C is a common cause of liver cancer and liver cancer is the third largest cause of worldwide cancer death.
If the early enemy game takes the last boss … well, it’s the player (or patient) who wins. When injected into the body, it stimulates reoviruses to signal proteins called interferon, which activate a type of white blood cell called natural blood cells. In experiments with mice and human cancer specimens, with natural killer cells, and then hepatitis C can be used in other cancers associated with viral infections, for example, Epstein-Bar-associated lymphoma.
1. Virus people
In The Matrix Agent Smith worthlessly compares humanity to viruses of the planet. In real life, he is … to a certain extent.
More than 45 million years ago mlekakormyachy infected with retroviruses. Starting based on RNA codes in DNA, retroviruses, such as HIV, can enter the host genome. If the host cell also replicates copies of the virus. This old retrovirus infected with germline cells, and so that it can spread to the descendants of the ancestors.
17 years ago, in 2000, a team of researchers from Boston discovered a strange human gene. The gene, known only as synthetic, encodes proteins produced by cells in the placenta.
The two cases are related to Sinketsin derived from the virus.
While the virus used for the host cell fusion gene, which utilizes a developing embryo gene fusion of single-cell placental cells. This layer needs the fetus to receive nutrients from the mother.
Sincerity protein is in two versions, the above is sintretynam 1. Syncretic 2 reflects the inheritance of the virus and hydrates the immune system and prevents the mother’s immune system from attacking the developing fetus.
HERV-K appeared only 200 thousand years ago, which was the latest of all retravirusnyh genes in humans. It activates important genes that help the fetus develop, and the viral particles and proteins help to protect very young fetuses from being infected with other viruses.
It is estimated that more than 8% of human DNA is derived from viruses.